Aerobic or cardio training is a systematic exercise in which energy for muscle movements is produced during glycolysis. The main goal of such activities is to improve the performance and endurance of the heart muscle. At the same time, cardio exercises help to solve other problems.
Who needs heart training and why?
A special feature of cardiovascular exercises at home and in the gym is that they:
- strengthen muscles and vascular system, stabilize blood pressure;
- increase the volume of the lungs, improve the functioning of the respiratory system;
- burn fat and stimulate metabolism, thereby promoting weight loss;
- lower the level of bad cholesterol in the blood;
- prevent heart attack, stroke, diabetes of the second type;
- develop resistance to stress, give a charge of cheerfulness;
- increase endurance and immunity.
Cardiac exercises are useful for beginners, as they prepare the cardiovascular system for more intense and heavy loads. They form the basis of training speed sports representatives. Exercises that help burn fatty tissue are surely included in various fitness programs.
One of the most effective means of combating obesity is prolonged (at least 45 minutes) cardio training.
Looking for “cordial” loads and athletes. Performing cardio exercises at the warm-up stage or 5–10-minute jogging on the track before the main training allows strength athletes to keep the cardiovascular system in good shape. Especially in the prevention of myocardium need athletes of mature age. In addition, fat burning exercises are an important component of training at the preparatory stage for competitions, which allows to “dry” the body.
How to perform cardio?
On average, a complex of cardio exercises takes time from 20 to 40 minutes. It is best to start playing sports with 5-10-minute classes and in a few weeks to bring the total duration of the workout up to half an hour. Later, when the body’s stamina increases, the lesson can be held longer, for example, an hour.
Eating preferably 2–3 hours before a workout. Eat after cardiophores can be 45 minutes later. During the entire workout, you must drink to maintain water-salt balance.
The complex of exercises for weight loss is best done in the morning when the metabolic rate is increased. Numerous studies show that the peak of body mobilization in the first half of the day falls on 9-12 hours. There are arguments in favor of late workouts. Thus, muscle performance reaches its maximum in the evening.
At 19 o’clock the lowest level of cortisol occurs. It is a hormone that breaks down muscle fibers and promotes fat accumulation. In addition, for working “owls” the evening is the only possible time for training.
Cardio training for burning fat and strengthening muscles has a number of features.
- Need to do 3-5 times a week. The break between workouts should not exceed two days.
- Before doing cardio, they do a warm-up. Heat muscles 5–10 minutes by performing general exercises.
- Stretching exercises – the final block of training that helps to relax the muscles.
- A positive attitude is a prerequisite for high-quality training, so you need to choose the movements that you like, engage in music and, if possible, in the fresh air.
- Sportswear should be comfortable. From shoes give preference to light sneakers with good shock-absorbing properties and fixation on the leg.
Movement in the rhythm of the heart
The main rule of cardio training is to constantly monitor your heart rate. The pulse can be judged on safety and on the effectiveness of loads. Find out the speed of your heartbeat at rest before you move. To do this, find the place of blood pulsation under the skin on the inside of the wrist. The most convenient way is to look for the pulse with the fingertips (index and middle) of the free hand. When you feel a beat, note the time and count the number of beats in 15 seconds. Next, multiply the resulting number by “4”. In an adult, the normal heart rate varies between 60–100 beats per minute.
Another indicator that needs to be considered is the maximum permissible pulse (HR max). To obtain the desired value of 220 subtract the age of the athlete. So, for a 20-year-old woman, the heart rate max is 200 beats per minute, for a 35-year-old – 185. What is this indicator, and why is it so important?
The pulse rate approaching the upper limit is a signal that the heart is working at the limit. And if this barrier due to carelessness or ignorance to step over, a heart attack can occur.
In order for aerobic training to be effective and at the same time safe, the heart rate must be within 60–80% of HR max. It is noteworthy that losing weight to train better at the level of 60–70%, and for the development of endurance, you can take the bar and higher – 70–80%. Calculate the aerobic corridor according to the formula: HR max × 0,6 (0,7 or 0,8). For example, a 30-year-old woman should have a pulse rate of 114–133 beats per minute during a fat-burning workout. If the goal of cardio is to increase endurance, the heart rate should be in the range of 133–152 beats / min.
Popular aerobic exercises
To understand what cardio is in practice, you can, having considered the generally available types of such exercises. Walking is one of the ways to move a person and at the same time aerobic exercise, which burns 300–400 calories per hour. Fitness instructors recommend beginners to walk at a fast pace for 20–45 minutes three times a week. The pulse rate in this case should be 50–70% of the HR max. Walking, as a type of cardiac load, is suitable for obese people recovering from injury.
Intensive calorie burning allows jogging. Energy consumption per hour is 600 cal. The main load falls on the muscles of the hips and legs, the arms are partially involved. Running is an excellent exercise for weight loss at home, one of the elements of general physical fitness, a prophylactic against osteoporosis. Experts advise young athletes to practice for about half an hour three times a week. The heart rate in the course of training should be at the level of 65–85% of heart rate max.
Riding a bicycle gives the same lipolytic effect as running, but less burdening the joints. Energy consumption – 600 cal per hour. Cycling is ideal for older people, people with certain problems of the musculoskeletal system.
To burn fat at home, you can buy an exercise bike. Such a ride not only contributes to weight loss, but also helps in drawing the relief of the quadriceps muscle of the thigh (quadriceps). Beginners to engage in cycling preferably 3 times a week for 30–45 minutes, keeping the heart rate within 65–85% of the maximum allowable.
Swimming involves all muscle groups. Due to the damping properties of water, it is safe for ligaments and joints, and therefore it is indicated, among others, for children, pregnant women, old people. Energy consumption during swimming is 600 calories per hour. For training you need: glasses, a swimming suit, a bathing cap and a subscription to the pool. Need to do in different techniques. At the warm-up stage, a crawl is preferred. In the main part alternate freestyle, breaststroke and butterfly. At the end they float on their backs at a slow pace. Novice swimmers should perform cardio weight loss exercises three times a week for 45 minutes. Pulse rate – 60–85% of heart rate max.
Aerobic exercise at home
Many cardio exercises are feasible for beginners. To perform them, detailed instructing of the trainer and sports equipment is not required. Suitable cardio exercises at home – running and jumping. You can run on the spot, but always vigorously, in the pace of rhythmic music. It is better to perform the exercise at the beginning of the workout – during the warm-up phase This may be a classic run, with high knee elevation or with zahlesty.
As for jumps, it is desirable to alternate them: small and frequent jumping with deep squats and jumping up. Another effective exercise for weight loss at home – “pendulum”. Initial position – stand: the back is flat, shoulders are straightened, the stomach is retracted. Hands can be put on a belt or put in front of the chest. Next, jump from side to side for a minute, gradually increasing the amplitude of movements.